Along with his siblings, Ben was homeschooled growing up. When he was a child, he wanted to be a paleontologist and often pretended to dig up fossils in his driveway.
As a teenager, Ben had a job working at a country club.
Ben first met his future wife, Jessa Duggar, when he was seventeen years old while attending church on vacation in Jessa's hometown. He grew facial hair in an attempt to look older in hopes of impressing her. He soon befriended two of Jessa's brothers, Joseph and Josiah. He began working overtime to try to earn extra money to go visit the Duggar family under the guise of visiting Josiah, but would always ask if "the whole family" would be there before visiting. After attending church with the family many times, Ben asked Jessa's father, Jim Bob, for her phone number, and begin getting to know her both in person and through text.
On September 9, 2013, Ben asked Jim Bob Duggar for permission to court his daughter, Jessa. Jim Bob gave his permission, and immediately brought Jessa into the room so Ben could ask her too. This courtship proposal, which was featured in the 19 Kids and Counting episode "Flea Market Finale", gained some national attention - being mocked on some late night talk shows and internet gossip sites for its awkwardness.
On August 3, 2014, Ben and Jessa went out to dinner with their parents, Michael and Guinn and Jim Bob and Michelle at the restaurant where the two went on their first date. At this dinner, Ben gave Jessa a gift with the instructions not to open it until the next day. When she opened the gift on August 4, 2014, she found a tablet with a prerecorded message from Ben instructing Jessa to head to the plane hanger where her older brother, John-David, would take her on a flight. After a day-long scavenger hunt, Jessa and her sister, Jinger, headed to Thorncrown Chapel, where Ben had set up candles and rose petals. At this chapel, Ben proposed to Jessa, and she said yes. This proposal scavenger hunt was featured on 19 Kids and Counting episode "Jessa's Engagement".
Although Jessa expressed interest in getting married at Thorncrown Chapel, the location was deemed to small for the more than 1,000 guests invited to the wedding. On November 1, 2014, Ben and Jessa got married at First Baptist Church in Bentonville, Arkansas. Ben's best man was his friend, Dylan McMahn, and his groomsmen were his brother Ethan, cousin Russ Seewald, future brothers-in-law Joseph and Josiah, and friends Daniel Robinson, Kolton Kulis, Ryan Schofield, Jake Hendrix, and Rob Flowers. His ring bearer was his youngest brother, Tommy. The couple elected not to share their first kiss in front of the crowds, instead allowing it to be a private moment in an undisclosed room in the church. This wedding was featured on 19 Kids and Counting episode "Jessa's Wedding".
For their honeymoon, Ben and Jessa went to Paris, France, Rome, Italy, and Venice, Italy. Their honeymoon was featured on 19 Kids and Counting episode "European Honeymoon".
Ben and Jessa have publicly expressed a desire to adopt children on many occasions, and have looked into the possibility of fostering children as well.
On April 21, 2015, Jessa announced via twitter that she and Ben were expecting their first child. After 27 hours of labor, Jessa gave birth to the couple's first son, Spurgeon Elliot, on November 5, 2015, in the couple's home. This birth is featured on the Counting On episode "Counting One More".
On August 23, 2016, the couple announced that they were expecting their second child. On February 6, 2017, Jessa gave birth to the couple's second son, Henry Wilberforce. This birth is featured on the Counting On episode "A New Baby".
On January 9, 2019, they announced that they are expecting their third child, with a due date in late Spring. Their daughter Ivy Jane was born on May 26, 2019. This birth is featured on the Counting On episode "A Surprise Delivery".
The couple suffered a miscarriage in 2020, but chose not to publicly speak about it at that time. They mentioned it while announcing their fourth child, calling the child a "rainbow baby".
On May 16, 2015, Ben graduated from National Park College with an associate's degree in political science. After graduating, Ben began studying with the intention of going to seminary.