He is the brother of Joshua Duggar, Jana Duggar, John-David Duggar, Jill Dillard, Jessa Seewald, Jinger Vuolo, Josiah Duggar, Joy-Anna Forsyth, Jedidiah Duggar, Jeremiah Duggar, Jason Duggar, James Duggar, Justin Duggar, Jackson Duggar, Johannah Duggar, Jennifer Duggar, Jordyn-Grace Duggar, and Josie Duggar.
Joseph was homeschooled growing up. As he grew older, he was given the responsibility of helping his younger siblings with their schoolwork in addition to doing his own. Joseph took the test for his GED at sixteen years old.
Like most children, Joseph was assigned chores growing up, which the family called "jurisdictions". In 2004, one of Joseph's jurisdictions was fetching the laundry. In 2011, Joseph's jurisdictions were outdoor work and the fireplace. It is likely that Joseph was freed all jurisdiction duties when he began his courtship, as his sisters had previously been when beginning their courtships.
By 2001, Joseph's parents had implemented a buddy system, where each older child was paired with a younger child to take care of. Typical tasks for an older buddy included dressing, bathing, and feeding their younger buddies. By 2009, the family had switched from individual buddies to buddy teams, with each team being led by one of the oldest four daughters. At this time Joseph was relieved of his duties as an older buddy.
Joseph began taking piano lessons from Ruth Anita Anderson, who he and his siblings referred to as "Nana", as a young child. He also took violin lessons.
In 2006, as featured on one of the TV specials, Joseph and his family moved into a new home in Springdale, Arkansas. The family made a point of doing much of the work on the house themselves, seeing it as a learning opportunity for their children. In this house, Joseph was given a dormitory-style room with his brothers.
In late 2009, after his sister Josie was born premature, Joseph moved with his family into the Cornish House in Little Rock, Arkansas, to be closer to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Joseph and a couple of his brothers moved back home before the rest of the family to get the house ready for their return.
In 2010, Joseph was an extra on the film Courageous, but he did not make it into the film's final cut.
Thanks to the reality show, Joseph has been able to take a number of vacations as a teenager and young adult. Notable vacation locations include Disneyland, New York City, Niagara Falls, Scotland, Ireland, London, Israel, China, and Japan.
Joseph met his future wife Kendra Caldwell while attending Lighthouse Baptist Church, where Kendra's father is the pastor. On March 7, 2017, Joseph Duggar asked Kendra to court him in the lot where his childhood home once was. He presented her with a promise ring, which the other Duggars have never done. They announced their courtship with a TLCGo video released online.
On May 26, 2017, Joe proposed to Kendra at his sister Joy-Anna's wedding reception. When Joy went to throw the bouquet to the group of eligible women, she simply turned and handed the bouquet to Kendra. She thought it was merely a sweet gesture until Joe appeared and proposed.
Joseph married Kendra Renee Caldwell on September 8, 2017, at First Baptist Church in Siloam Springs, Arkansas. His best man was his brother Josiah, and his groomsmen were his brothers John-David, Jedidiah, Jeremiah, Jason, James, Justin, and Joshua, as well as his friends Trace Bates and Peter Query. His sisters Jana, Jill, Jessa, Jinger, Joy-Anna, Johannah, and Jennifer were among the bridesmaids. "It is an amazing feeling to be husband and wife," Joseph said of his wedding. "It's something that I've always dreamed of to have a wife and to raise a family in a way that honors the Lord. We are very excited to see what God has in the future for us."
For their honeymoon, the couple visited Athens, Greece.
On December 18, 2017, Joseph and Kendra announced that they are expecting their first child. On June 8, 2018, Joseph and Kendra welcomed their first child, Garrett David, into the world. He weighed 7 lbs, 8 oz, and was 20 ½ inches long.
On April 11, 2019, they announced that they are expecting their second child. On June 25, 2019, they revealed that they are expecting a girl. Their daughter, Addison Renee, was born on November 2, 2019 at 5:33 am. weighing 7 lbs 12.5 oz and measuring 20 ½ inches.
On August 19, 2020, they announced that they are expecting their third child, due in February 2021. On November 30, 2020, they revealed that they are having another girl. Their second daughter, Brooklyn Praise, was born on February 19, 2021, at 7:48 pm., weighing 7 lbs, 3 oz and measuring 20 ¼ inches.
Joseph attended a year-long Biblical degree program at Crown College in 2015.
He works with his father doing fix-ups on the family's commercial properties.